Poursafa, P., Keikha, M. & Kelishadi, R. Systematic review on adverse birth outcomes of climate change. J. Res. Med. Sci. 20, 397–402 (2015).
Figlio, D. N., Guryan, J., Karbownik, K. & Roth, J. Long-term cognitive and health outcomes of school-aged children who were born late-term vs full-term. JAMA Pediatr. 170, 758–764 (2016).
Spong, C. Y. Defining “term” pregnancy: recommendations from the Defining “Term” Pregnancy Workgroup. JAMA 309, 2445–2446 (2013).
Almond, D. & Currie, J. Killing me softly: the fetal origins hypothesis. J. Econ. Perspect. 25, 153–172 (2011).
Tao, S., Monteiro, A. P. A., Thompson, I. M., Hayen, M. J. & Dahl, G. E. Effect of late-gestation maternal heat stress on growth and immune function of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 7128–7136 (2012).
Dreiling, C. E., Carman, F. S. & Brown, D. E. Maternal endocrine and fetal metabolic responses to heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 312–327 (1991).
Fuchs, A., Fuchs, F., Husslein, P., Soloff, M. S. & Fernstrom, M. J. Oxytocin receptors and human parturition: a dual role for oxytocin in the initiation of labor. Science 215, 1396–1398 (1982).
Hampel, R. et al. Short-term impact of ambient air pollution and air temperature on blood pressure among pregnant women. Epidemiology 22, 671–679 (2011).
Strand, L. B., Barnett, A. G. & Tong, S. Maternal exposure to ambient temperature and the risks of preterm birth and stillbirth in Brisbane, Australia. Am. J. Epidemiol. 175, 99–107 (2011).
Auger, N., Naimi, A. I., Smargiassi, A., Log, E. & Kosatsky, T. Extreme heat and risk of early delivery among preterm and term pregnancies. Epidemiology 25, 344–350 (2014).
Avalos, L. A., Chen, H., Li, D. & Basu, R. The impact of high apparent temperature on spontaneous preterm delivery: a case-crossover study. Environ. Health 16, 5 (2017).
Basu, R., Malig, B. & Ostro, B. High ambient temperature and the risk of preterm delivery. Am. J. Epidemiol. 172, 1108–1117 (2010).
Dadvand, P. et al. Climate extremes and the length of gestation. Environ. Health Perspect. 119, 1449–14453 (2011).
Lee, S. J., Hajat, S., Steer, P. J. & Filippi, V. A time-series analysis of any short-term effects of meteorological and air pollution factors on preterm births in London, UK. Environ. Res. 106, 185–194 (2008).
Porter, K. R., Thomas, S. D. & Whitman, S. The relation of gestation length to short-term heat stress. Am. J. Public Health 89, 1090–1092 (1999).
Schifano, P. et al. Effect of ambient temperature and air pollutants on the risk of preterm birth, Rome 2001–2010. Environ. Int. 61, 77–87 (2013).
Vicedo-Cabrera, A. M., Iniguez, C., Barona, C. & Ballester, F. Exposure to elevated temperatures and risk of preterm birth in Valencia, Spain. Environ. Res. 134, 210–217 (2014).
Yackerson, N., Piura, B. & Sheiner, E. The influence of meteorological factors on the emergence of preterm delivery and preterm premature rupture of membrane. J. Perinatol. 28, 707–711 (2008).
Strand, L. B., Barnett, A. G. & Tong, S. The influence of season and ambient temperature on birth outcomes: a review of the epidemiological literature. Environ. Res. 111, 451–462 (2011).
Song, X. et al. Impact of ambient temperature on morbidity and mortality: an overview of reviews. Sci. Total Environ. 586, 241–254 (2017).
Barreca, A., Deschenes, O. & Guldi, M. Maybe next month? Temperature shocks and dynamic adjustments in birth rates. Demography 55, 1269–1293 (2018).
IPCC Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report (eds Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R. K. & Meyer, L. A.) (IPCC, 2014).
Lynch, C. D. & Zhang, J. The research implications of the selection of a gestational age estimation method. Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 21, 86–96 (2007).
Dell, M., Jones, B. F. & Olken, B. A. What do we learn from the weather? The new climate–economy literature. J. Econ. Lit. 52, 740–798 (2014).
Obradovich, N., Migliorini, R., Mednick, S. C. & Fowler, J. H. Nighttime temperature and human sleep loss in a changing climate. Sci. Adv. 3, e1601555 (2017).
Barreca, A., Clay, K., Deschenes, O., Greenstone, M. & Shapiro, J. S. Adapting to climate change: the remarkable decline in the US temperature–mortality relationship over the twentieth century. J. Polit. Econ. 124, 105–159 (2016).
Isen, A., Rossin-Slater, M. & Walker, R. Relationship between season of birth, temperature exposure, and later life wellbeing. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 13447–13452 (2017).
Biddle, J. Explaining the spread of residential air conditioning, 1955–1980. Explor. Econ. Hist. 45, 402–423 (2008).
Taylor, K. E., Stouffer, R. J. & Meehl, G. A. An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 93, 485–498 (2012).
Deschênes, O., Greenstone, M. & Guryan, J. Climate change and birth weight. Am. Econ. Rev. 99, 211–217 (2009).